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The beginnings: Hannibal to Sulla using none tointegrate none in web,windows applicationqr code generating accounts of senatori none none al debates show that this was true in the second century. The response of the senate, however, to the questions that confronted it was by the allocation of provinciae to magistrates and pro-magistrates. For this reason it is not surprising that in of cial documents the only attested use of imperium is that of magistrates and pro-magistrates, and of provincia that of the responsibilities of such persons.

Although in other contexts (especially the writings of comic dramatists) imperium most often means an order or power in a general, unspeci c sense, and provincia a task or a responsibility unconnected with the activities of the Roman res publica, both words relate in the great majority of cases to the functioning of individuals. Although imperium can be used of the power of a people (as Cato uses it of the Roman people in his speech on the Rhodian alliance),167 in the earlier part of this period this looks to be simply another example of imperium being used in a non-explicit sense as power , rather than as a technical term for the dominance of the Roman state. Cato s phrase is sub solo imperio nostro , and this has been thought to be a rhetorical rendering of a technical expression such as sub imperio populi Romani; but although this last was certainly used in a technical sense later, as can be seen by its use in Livy and by legal writers in the second and third centuries ad,168 sub imperio down to the end of the republic describes far more often the power of non-Roman peoples.

169 As we have seen, in the period down to the death of Sulla, imperium meaning the power of the Roman people does not occur in of cial , statutory contexts, though the small number of documents which have survived makes it dangerous to draw rm conclusions.. ASP.NET 167 168 169. Cato, ap. Gellius, N none for none A 3.6.

16 (= ORF no. 8.164).

See above, p. 43 and p. 54.

Livy 8.19.1 2, 40.

53.5; Gaius, Inst. 1.

1.53; Paulus, Dig. 36.

Caesar, B Gall. 5.24.

4; 5.39.1; 6.

10.1; 7.75.

2; Anon., Bell. Alex.

66.5; 78.3; Sallust, Iug.

13.1 2; Nepos, Con. 4.

4; Eum. 7.1 2.

Of Roman imperium, only at Cato, ORF no. 8.164; Foedus Callatinum (ILLRP 516), lines 5 6; Caesar, B Gall.


. The Language of Empire It is notable, howev none for none er, that when it does appear more often in nonof cial contexts at the very end of the period, it is used to describe the power which Rome exercises over other peoples, kings and nations, or even across the globe;170 or, when it refers to an entity which can be enlarged, opposed, defended or destroyed, that entity seems to be not a Roman territorial empire but Rome itself.171 The centrality of imperium as the power of a magistrate or promagistrate in the late third and second centuries shaped the senate s foreign and imperial policy, not only in relation to the imperiumholders themselves, from the allocation of a provincia to the award of a triumph, but also in relations with the inhabitants within the provinciae. If someone in the ruling class in Rome wanted to extend protection to provincials against misgovernment or the senate wanted to reward a loyal city by a grant of freedom, the consequence, expressed by statute or senatorial decree, was a restriction on the activities of an imperium-holder, or a punishment for his actions after the end of his tenure.

This centrality of the idea of what imperium and provincia were remained in place, even though the content of both changed markedly. The imperium of the proconsul C. Marius or the dictator L.

Sulla were different in scope, both in terms of period of tenure and of range of activity, from those of earlier holders of these charges; and the provincia Asia, taken over from a Pergamene king as the result of his bequest, was different in type from any previous provincia. Moreover, and perhaps more signi cantly, the gradual development of what were to become the institutions of provincial administration in terms of jurisdiction, taxation and relations with the communities of the provinciae, alongside the emerging sense of responsibility for the members of those communities as seen. 170 171.
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