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Standards use none none integrated togenerate none for none Data Matrix Encoding Data With the id none for none ea of making life easier for system administrators and software developers, a group got together over the Internet and developed the Linux Filesystem Standard (FSSTND), which has since evolved into the Linux Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS). Before this standard was adopted, key programs were located in different places in different Linux distributions. Today you can sit down at a Linux system and expect to find any given standard program at a consistent location (page 91).

. Overview of Linux 13 home notes report Figure 1-2. Links The Linux filesystem structure A link allo none for none ws a given file to be accessed by means of two or more names. The alternative names can be located in the same directory as the original file or in another directory. Links can make the same file appear in several users directories, enabling those users to share the file easily.

Windows uses the term shortcut in place of link to describe this capability. Macintosh users will be more familiar with the term alias. Under Linux, an alias is different from a link; it is a command macro feature provided by the shell (page 324).

Like most multiuser operating systems, Linux allows users to protect their data from access by other users. It also allows users to share selected data and programs with certain other users by means of a simple but effective protection scheme. This level of security is provided by file access permissions, which limit the users who can read from, write to, or execute a file.

More recently, Linux has implemented Access Control Lists (ACLs), which give users and administrators finer-grained control over file access permissions.. Security The Shell: Command Interpreter and Programming Language In a textua l environment, the shell the command interpreter acts as an interface between you and the operating system. When you enter a command on the screen, the shell interprets the command and calls the program you want. A number of shells are available for Linux.

The four most popular shells are The Bourne Again Shell (bash), an enhanced version of the original Bourne Shell (the original UNIX shell). The Debian Almquist Shell (dash), a smaller version of bash, with fewer features. Most startup shell scripts call dash in place of bash to speed the boot process.

. 14 1 Welcome to Linux and Mac OS X The TC Sh ell (tcsh), an enhanced version of the C Shell, developed as part of BSD UNIX. The Z Shell (zsh), which incorporates features from a number of shells, including the Korn Shell. Because different users may prefer different shells, multiuser systems can have several different shells in use at any given time.

The choice of shells demonstrates one of the advantages of the Linux operating system: the ability to provide a customized interface for each user.. Shell scripts Besides per forming its function of interpreting commands from a keyboard and sending those commands to the operating system, the shell is a high-level programming language. Shell commands can be arranged in a file for later execution (Linux calls these files shell scripts; Windows calls them batch files). This flexibility allows users to perform complex operations with relative ease, often by issuing short commands, or to build with surprisingly little effort elaborate programs that perform highly complex operations.

. Filename Generation Wildcards and ambiguous file references When you ty none for none pe commands to be processed by the shell, you can construct patterns using characters that have special meanings to the shell. These characters are called wildcard characters. The patterns, which are called ambiguous file references, are a kind of shorthand: Rather than typing in complete filenames, you can type patterns; the shell expands these patterns into matching filenames.

An ambiguous file reference can save you the effort of typing in a long filename or a long series of similar filenames. For example, the shell might expand the pattern mak* to make-3.80.

tar.gz. Patterns can also be useful when you know only part of a filename or cannot remember the exact spelling of a filename.

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