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IT-SC using barcode encoder for none control to generate, create none image in none applications. iReport for Jasper Server 2.8 Conclusions In this chapt er we introduced the fundamental concepts of object orientation, open systems, and object-oriented architectures. We learned that object orientation helps to isolate changes in software systems by combining the data and processing into modules called objects. Object technology is a capability which is already present and entering the mainstream of software development.

Object technology is broadly supported by commercial industry through software vending and by many mainstream end-user organizations in their application development. We learned that the only sustainable commercial advances are through open systems forms of commercial technology. With proprietary technologies, the obsolescence of capabilities conflicts with the need to build stable application environments which support the extension of application functionality.

We learned that stovepipe systems are the pervasive form of application architecture but can be reformed into more effective component object architectures. In the next chapter we will describe object technologies and various reference models which make these technologies understandable. In this chapter we talked about one of the key concepts in object-oriented architecture the application of standards in software development.

Proper understanding of how standards are utilized is very important to the successful exploitation of commercial technologies and the interoperability of application functions. In this chapter we also described object-oriented client server technologies with a focus upon the underlying distributed computing capabilities and how they compare with related technologies from the procedural generation. We discovered that the companies supplying these technologies have highly overlapping interests which are expressed through commercial standards consortia and formal standards bodies.

We discussed how distributed computing environments vary from the CORBA mechanism to the Microsoft technologies that are more closely related to remote procedure call. Finally, we described some of the details of CORBA infrastructure and how they relate to the Cargill model. In conclusion, a wide range of open systems client server technologies support object orientation.

These technologies enable the construction of a wide array of distributed systems based upon objects and components.. 2.9 Exercises Exercise 2.1 Assess the state of your current organization (or customer) with respect to the adoption of software paradigms. Prepare a short status assessment document containing recommendations for resolving any gaps in the current skill base.

. Background for Solution:. IT-SC First look at none none the programming languages being used. Most procedural and OO organizations adopt single-language solutions. Then examine the training requirements.

How much training is each developer required to have We know of major IT organizations that require 9 weeks to as much as 26 weeks of training before they turn developers loose on the shop floor. At a bare minimum, we"d suggest 3 weeks. Suppose we"re pursuing the OO paradigm.

The recommended training is 1 week for "thinking objects," 1 week for OO programming, and 1 week for distributed systems development process and practice, e.g., experiencing systems building in a training environment.

These are the recommended absolute minimums. Some of the smartest companies require much more. Exercise 2.

2 Assess the state of architectural control within your organization. Are you heavily dependent upon the architecture of a single vendor or set of vendors What elements of the architecture do you control in a vendor-independent manner Create a list of recommendations for resolving any discrepancies or shortcomings due to excessive vendor dependency..

Background for Solution:. Ask people, " none for none What is our architecture " If the answer is Oracle or Microsoft, you should be concerned. These are honorable vendor firms, but in our way of thinking, what vendors do is not application architecture. Simple selection of a technology is not sufficient to resolve architectural forces.

At a minimum, your enterprise architecture should describe the deployment of technologies and customization conventions for how products are used consistently across systems development. Ideally, your organization has its own APIs that resolve key interoperability issues, as well as rigorously maintained profiles for technology utilization. Exercise 2.

3 Assess the state of middleware technologies in your organization (or customer). Identify which technologies are utilized, and how effectively they are exploited..

Background for Solution:. In our experi none for none ence, there is a very high correlation between the technologies utilized and the architecture practices. If you are using several middleware infrastructures in a single application, you are most likely to have ad hoc architecture practices and relatively unmaintainable systems. In the era of CORBA enlightenment, begin to recognize the folly of this approach.

Many organizations, being conservative, chose DCE as their corporate middleware solution. However, DCE remains a relatively brittle infrastructure (originating from the "C" procedural generation of technologies). Early adoptions of CORBA frequently resemble DCE-like solutions.

As these organizations mature in their use of distributed computing, there is a corresponding flowering of architectural practices..
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