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7 Cultural Change use none none creation todeploy none in qr code generation We turn to the none none dictionary. It turns out that prescriptive and framework each has a broad range of definitions, depending on which dictionary is consulted. We have taken definitions from the 2000-page The Random House Dictionary of the English Language (the unabridged 1967 edition) because they reflect the spirit of what we are trying to convey in engineering terms.

Prescriptive giving directions Framework a skeletal structure designed to support or enclose something To understand the way that we are using the term prescriptive application of an ADPE element, we first need to explain how the qualifier prescriptive applies to ADPE element content. ADPE elements are the most useful and require infrequent change when they give directions. By giving directions we mean giving guidance not detailed, step-by-step instructions.

We recognize that some people use the phrase giving directions to mean giving precise instructions. Others use this phrase to mean something in between our use and this precise-instruction use. Thus, ADPE content should give directions to the extent that they provide management and staff the starting point for tailoring to the specific needs of their project work.

In earlier chapters, we describe this tailoring by saying that management and staff apply the ADPE practices consistent with the schedule and resource constraints of their projects. People, particularly those with experience, have to be given leeway to apply their experience. This leeway we have expressed as prescriptive application of the ADPE practices.

And it is this leeway that opens the door for people to adapt to the ADPE culture. We are thus using the phrase prescriptive application in the same sense that prescriptive is used to qualify the word grammar. The same dictionary defines prescriptive grammar as grammar that is considered in terms of what is correct, and therefore good usage.

Similarly, prescriptive application of ADPE practices means application that is good usage of available time and resources. To understand the way that we are using the term framework as it applies to the ADPE, we combine the notions of leeway and prescriptive application. When an ADPE is a framework in the sense of a skeletal structure designed to support a way of doing things by bordering it with acceptable practices (borrowing from the dictionary definition), it cultivates cultural change.

Skeletal here means what we just said above, that is, ADPE practices must be sufficiently specific so that they convey something that actually can be applied to develop software products, but they cannot be so specific that they tie the hands of various elements within an organization and actually impede product development (i.e., one size does not fit all).

That is, an. Microsoft Office Word Website 7 Cultural Change ADPE that foste none for none rs cultural change is one that (1) is prescriptive in content and (2) can be prescriptively applied. These words are the bottom line regarding the PEG s approach to bringing about ADPE-based cultural change. The principal corollary to this bottom line then is that the PEG should stay away from producing ADPE elements that are recipelike practices.

We believe that software systems development cannot be reduced to a recipe of single instructions. People and their ability to apply themselves cognitively to software systems development are the most important ingredients (no pun intended) for achieving software systems development success. Figure 7 11 depicts this bottom line and its relationship to the notions of the ADPE as a business practice framework and prescriptive application of these practices.

In cultivating cultural change, the PEG must keep in mind the underlying currents of people s own experiences. Remember, Sam, Pam, and Ham like most people in the software industry are naturally going to resist doing things the organization s way if they do not have room to maneuver. Sometimes, maneuvering can degenerate into subterfuge.

The PEG must recognize that, within any organization, interpretations of what playing by the ADPE rules means will generally span a broad spectrum. Some people will try to carry things out meticulously according to what is written (e.g.

, if a CCB is to meet at least monthly, they will tend to meet more frequently; if a suggested format for CCB minutes is included in an element, they will pattern their minutes after that format and then some). Others will follow the spirit of the ADPE rules but will be somewhat less fastidious in their application (e.g.

, if an ADPE element calls for product assurance participation in CCB meetings, they may have product assurance attend some meetings, but always copy them on CCB minutes). And still others will draw a line in the sand and say that they will simply not follow some ADPE practices (e.g.

, if an ADPE element calls for customer participation in the acceptance testing process to decide TIR resolutions, they will adopt the attitude that they know what the customer wants so that the customer does not need to be involved in the acceptance testing process). To aid in ADPE implementation, we suggest that the PEG should focus its attention on the people in the middle of the spectrum. Once these individuals become more like the people who follow the ADPE rules meticulously, the resistors will face increasing pressure to get on board.

The PEG must also recognize that some people are never going to change and that it is simply not cost-effective to keep beating on those people to change. Remember, the captain who went down with the Titanic was informed so history tells that his ship was in iceberg-infested waters. Like this captain, there are some in the software industry who simply believe that software disaster cannot happen to them because their way of doing things is tried and true.

If the PEG has done a good job in following a process of getting organizational inputs to. Application Dev elopment Process Environment (ADPE).
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