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/ INTRODUCTION in Software Creation barcode 3 of 9 in Software / INTRODUCTION




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CHAPTER 1 / INTRODUCTION generate, create barcode 3/9 none for software projects iPhone UCSB UCLA SRI Utah Host IMP Figure 1.1 The original ARPANET. The protocol Software Code 3/9 s the network used were under continuous development and by 1974 the Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) emerged to replace NCP. As the operating system of choice at that time (Unix) had TCP/IP built in, it was easy for universities to join the ARPANET. And many did.

The year of 1979 saw the advent of USENET newsgroups: a logical progression from telephone dial-up bulletin boards and the discussion groups. By the early 1980s there were hundreds then thousands of machines connected. It was becoming a little dif cult to manage all the names and addresses for all the machines, so new protocols were developed to collect machines into groups called domains and have a non-centralized method of naming.

This was the Domain Name System (DNS): the .com was born. In 1982 the word internet was rst used to describe a network of networks.

In the mid 1980s a high-speed successor to ARPANET was developed. The National Science Foundation (NSF) created the NFSNET backbone which was set up between the six NSF supercomputer sites and this provided major trunking between regional networks. This started with 56Kb telephone lines, but was soon upgraded to 448Kb bre optic lines and then 1.

5Mb lines in 1990. By the end of the 1980s, there were hundreds of thousands of hosts on the Internet. In 1989 1990, the old ARPANET was decommissioned.

Soon big business started to be interested in the Internet phenomenon. They provided commercial IP networks and the network backbone was replaced by a commercially driven infrastructure. This growth was fuelled by the uses people made of the networks.

Mostly email, but other things, too. The popularity was helped by the use of a single open standard protocol to connect machines. It was non-proprietary and open so anyone could adopt it and implement it.

Many other standards, e.g., OSF in the UK, IBM s mainframe network, BITNET, HEPNET (high-energy physics), SPAN (NASA), and so on, existed, but their reach was limited.

The only protocol allowed on the Internet was IP and this ensured that (say) an IBM machine could talk to a DEC machine regardless of their internal workings. Slowly the other networks declined and machines and applications were converted to TCP/IP. Everybody started using the IP in their systems in preference to their own or bought-in protocols.

In 1992 the Internet hit 1 million hosts. There was general use in universities and a few companies, mainly for email. Ethernet at 10Mb/s emerged as the LAN technology of choice.

. 1.4 / INTERNET HISTORY The invention of Gopher in 1 Software barcode 3 of 9 991 was an early step towards a global information system. The University of Minnesota invented a system to simplify the fetching of les from remote machines with its go for system. This presented the user with a list of les and directories and these could be linked to other Gopher systems anywhere else in the world.

Gopher was popular for a while, being text based and thus suitable for the majority of terminals in use at the time. Gopher is still supported in the major Web browsers, though it is increasingly dif cult to nd a Gopher server still running. However, it was the invention of the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1991 that really drove the second phase of growth of the Internet.

Tim Berners-Lee at CERN (European Centre for Nuclear Research) needed a way to control the huge amounts of data (reports, pictures, programs, etc.) that were spread across the many participating countries. He invented the World Wide Web.

It was similar to Gopher, but with a graphical point-and-click interface and the ability to display pictures (and later, sound and video). He and Marc Andreessen developed the Mosaic browser (1993), later to become Netscape. This was a big breakthrough: point-and-click interfaces allow use by computer phobic people.

There was sudden massive growth as the Internet was recognized to have commercial value for delivering content via the WWW and the general public at home could use browsers to access it via modems. After several false starts (when it initially tried to market its own proprietary system) Microsoft fell into line and the Internet took off. There was a huge growth in Internet Service Providers (ISPs), companies that connect you to the Internet, e.

g., AOL. Similarly for companies selling over the WWW, billions of dollars were spent on and over the Internet.

There was massive growth in infrastructure involving advances in optical bre technology and processor power. In the UK free dial-up ISPs arrived (non-subscription services that were nanced by a slice of the cost of the telephone call) and these boosted the expansion of the Internet into the home. Homes got affordable fast modems which ran at 56Kb/s.

Internet companies went public and reaped billions. The dot com boom reached its peak, with investors pouring money into anything that had .com attached, regardless of viability.

Telecoms companies put billions into unproven technology. Entertainment companies (generally TV, lm, and music publishing) started taking an interest, mostly through fear of losing control of their dissemination of entertainment to a rag-bag of new companies over which they had no dominion. Soon came the dot com crash: investors nally realized the emperor had no clothes and the overinvestment in technology caused the stock market to crash.

Most Internet companies shrank, many died. High-speed networks came to the home via the cable TV/telephone network, via Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) and via many other methods. Out of the ashes of the dot com crash grew much more sustainable companies: home shopping using the Internet is now a multi-billion-dollar concern.

Traditional suppliers of telephony started to move their networks to Internet technology; TV and music companies nervously started to use the Internet to deliver (in particular, to sell) content. The Internet is huge now. Who knows what is next .

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