Driver WL Polysilicon word line in .NET Generation ean13+2 in .NET Driver WL Polysilicon word line

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Driver WL Polysilicon word line using .net tobuild ean-13 for web,windows application What is GS1 DataBar Metal word line (a) Driving the word line from both sides Metal bypass K cells (b) Using a metal bypass Polysilicon word line Approaches to reduce the word-line delay. Better Interconnect Strategies With the length of the wire being a prime factor in both the delay and the energy consumption of an interconnect wire, any approach that helps to reduce the wire length is bound to have an essential impact. It was pointed out earlier that the addition of interconnect layers tends to reduce the average wire length, as routing congestion is reduced and interconnections can pretty much follow a direct path between source and destination. Yet, the Mahattan-style wiring approach that is typical in todays routing tools brings with it a substantial amount of overhead that is often overlooked.

In the Manhattan-style routing, interconnections are routed first along one of two preferred directions, followed by a connection in the other direction (Figure 9.18a). It seems obvious that routing along the diagonal direction would yield a sizable reduction in wirelength of up to 29% in the best case.

Ironically, 45 lines were very popolar in the early days of integrated circuits. Page 425 Friday, April 5, 2002 4:15 PM Section 9.3 Resistive Parasitics designs, but got of out of vogue because of complexity issues, impact on tools, and maskmaking concerns. Recently, it has been demonstrated that these concerns can be addressed adequately, and that 45 lines are perfectly feasible [Simplex01]. The impact on wiring is quite tangible: a reduction of 20% in wirelength! This in turn results in higher performance, lower power dissipation, and smaller chip area.

The density of wiring structures that go beyond pure Manhattan directions, is demonstrated clearly in a sample layout, shown in Figure 9.18b. destination.

go di a na l source x Manhattan Figure 9.18 Manhatta n versus diagonal routing. (a) Manhattan routing uses preferential routing along orthogonal axis, while diagonal routing allows for 45 lines.

(b) example of layout using 45 lines.. Introducing Repeater EAN/UCC-13 for .NET s The most popular design approach to reducing the propagation delay of long wires is to introduce intermediate buffers, also called repeaters, in the interconnect line (Figure 9.19).

Making an interconnect line m times shorter reduces its propagation delay quadratically, and is sufficient to offset the extra delay of the repeaters when the wire is sufficiently long. Assuming that the repeaters have a fixed delay tpbuf , we can derive the delay of the partitioned wire. L tp = 0.

38 rc -- m + mt pbuf - m . tpbuf R/m V in C/m C/m C/m C/m R/m R/m R/m V out (9.6). Reducing RC interconnect delay by introducing repeaters. Page 426 Friday, April 5, 2002 4:15 PM COPING WITH INTERCONNECT 9 . The optimal number o f buffers that minimes the overall delay can be found by setting tp / m = 0. 0.38 rc m opt = L ---------------- = tpbuf yielding a minimum delay of tp , opt = 2 tp w i r e(u n b u f f e r e d) t pbuf (9.

8) tpwire ( u n b u f f e r e d) ------------------------------------t pbuf (9.7). and is obtained when EAN-13 Supplement 5 for .NET the delay of the individual wire segments is made equal to that of a repeater. Observe also the equivalence between this design problem and the chain of transmission gates, as discussed in Example 6.

11.. Example 9.5 Reducing the Wire Delay through Repeaters In Example 4.8, we derived the propagation delay of a 10 cm long, 1 m wide Al1 wire to be 31.

4 nsec. Eq. (9.

7) indicates that a partitioning of the wire into 18 sections would minimize its delay, assuming a fixed tpbuf of 0.1 nsec. This results in an overall delay time of 3.

5 nsec, an important improvement. Similarly, the delays of equal-length Polysilicon and Al5 wires would be reduced to 212 nsec (from 112 sec) and 1.3 nsec (from 4.

2 nsec) by introducing 1058 and 6 stages, respectively.. The above analysis i ean13+5 for .NET s simplified and optimistic in the sense that tpbuf is a function of the load capacitance. Sizing the repeaters is needed to reduce the delay.

A more precise expression of the delay of the interconnect chain is obtained by modeling the repeater as an RC network, and by using the Ellmore delay approach. Assuming that R d and Cd are the resistance and capacitance of a minimum-sized repeater, and s is the sizing factor, this leads to the following expression: R d cL rL L 2 t p = m 0.69----- ------ + sC d + 0.

69 --- ( sCd ) + 0.38 rc -- -- m m m s By setting tp / m and tp / s to 0, optimal values for m, s and tpmin are obtained. 0.

38rc m opt = L ----------------------- = 0.69R d C d s opt = tpwire ( u n b u f f e r e d) ------------------------------------tp b u f, m i n Rd c --------rCd (9.10) (9.

9). t p,m i n = 2.4 L R d C d rc Eq. (9.

10) clearly demonstrates how the insertion of repeaters linearizes the delay of a wire. Also, observe that for a given technology and a given interconnect layer, there exists aan optimal length of the wire segments between repeaters. We call this the critical length Lcrit.

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